[xen master] docs: create Cache Allocation Technology (CAT) and Code and Data Prioritization (CDP) feature document

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[xen master] docs: create Cache Allocation Technology (CAT) and Code and Data Prioritization (CDP) feature document

patchbot
commit da472f80d2bd60dff24962b11cd9510f74612809
Author:     Yi Sun <[hidden email]>
AuthorDate: Tue Aug 1 11:04:00 2017 +0200
Commit:     Jan Beulich <[hidden email]>
CommitDate: Thu Aug 3 12:30:36 2017 +0200

    docs: create Cache Allocation Technology (CAT) and Code and Data Prioritization (CDP) feature document
   
    This patch creates CAT and CDP feature document in doc/features/. It describes
    key points to implement L3 CAT/CDP and L2 CAT which is described in details in
    Intel SDM "INTEL® RESOURCE DIRECTOR TECHNOLOGY (INTEL® RDT) ALLOCATION FEATURES".
   
    Signed-off-by: Yi Sun <[hidden email]>
    Reviewed-by: Konrad Rzeszutek Wilk <[hidden email]>
    Reviewed-by: Wei Liu <[hidden email]>
---
 docs/features/intel_psr_cat_cdp.pandoc | 471 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
 1 file changed, 471 insertions(+)

diff --git a/docs/features/intel_psr_cat_cdp.pandoc b/docs/features/intel_psr_cat_cdp.pandoc
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..acf877b
--- /dev/null
+++ b/docs/features/intel_psr_cat_cdp.pandoc
@@ -0,0 +1,471 @@
+% Intel Cache Allocation Technology and Code and Data Prioritization Features
+% Revision 1.15
+
+\clearpage
+
+# Basics
+
+---------------- ----------------------------------------------------
+         Status: **Tech Preview**
+
+Architecture(s): Intel x86
+
+   Component(s): Hypervisor, toolstack
+
+       Hardware: L3 CAT: Haswell and beyond CPUs
+                 CDP   : Broadwell and beyond CPUs
+                 L2 CAT: Atom codename Goldmont and beyond CPUs
+---------------- ----------------------------------------------------
+
+# Terminology
+
+* CAT         Cache Allocation Technology
+* CBM         Capacity BitMasks
+* CDP         Code and Data Prioritization
+* CMT         Cache Monitoring Technology
+* COS/CLOS    Class of Service
+* MSRs        Machine Specific Registers
+* PSR         Intel Platform Shared Resource
+
+# Overview
+
+Intel provides a set of allocation capabilities including Cache Allocatation
+Technology (CAT) and Code and Data Prioritization (CDP).
+
+CAT allows an OS or hypervisor to control allocation of a CPU's shared cache
+based on application/domain priority or Class of Service (COS). Each COS is
+configured using capacity bitmasks (CBMs) which represent cache capacity and
+indicate the degree of overlap and isolation between classes. Once CAT is co-
+nfigured, the processor allows access to portions of cache according to the
+established COS. Intel Xeon processor E5 v4 family (and some others) introduce
+capabilities to configure and make use of the CAT mechanism on the L3 cache.
+Intel Goldmont processor provides support for control over the L2 cache.
+
+Code and Data Prioritization (CDP) Technology is an extension of CAT. CDP
+enables isolation and separate prioritization of code and data fetches to
+the L3 cache in a SW configurable manner, which can enable workload priorit-
+ization and tuning of cache capacity to the characteristics of the workload.
+CDP extends CAT by providing separate code and data masks per Class of Service
+(COS). When SW configures to enable CDP, L3 CAT is disabled.
+
+# User details
+
+* Feature Enabling:
+
+  Add "psr=cat" to boot line parameter to enable all supported level CAT featu-
+  res. Add "psr=cdp" to enable L3 CDP but disables L3 CAT by SW.
+
+* xl interfaces:
+
+  1. `psr-cat-show [OPTIONS] domain-id`:
+
+     Show L2 CAT or L3 CAT/CDP CBM of the domain designated by Xen domain-id.
+
+     Option `-l`:
+     `-l2`: Show cbm for L2 cache.
+     `-l3`: Show cbm for L3 cache.
+
+     If `-lX` is specified and LX is not supported, print error.
+     If no `-l` is specified, level 3 is the default option.
+
+  2. `psr-cat-set [OPTIONS] domain-id cbm`:
+
+     Set L2 CAT or L3 CAT/CDP CBM to the domain designated by Xen domain-id.
+
+     Option `-s`: Specify the socket to process, otherwise all sockets are
+     processed.
+
+     Option `-l`:
+     `-l2`: Specify cbm for L2 cache.
+     `-l3`: Specify cbm for L3 cache.
+
+     If `-lX` is specified and LX is not supported, print error.
+     If no `-l` is specified, level 3 is the default option.
+
+     Option `-c` or `-d`:
+     `-c`: Set L3 CDP code cbm.
+     `-d`: Set L3 CDP data cbm.
+
+  3. `psr-hwinfo [OPTIONS]`:
+
+     Show CMT & L2 CAT & L3 CAT/CDP HW information on every socket.
+
+     Option `-m, --cmt`: Show Cache Monitoring Technology (CMT) hardware info.
+
+     Option `-a, --cat`: Show CAT/CDP hardware info.
+
+# Technical details
+
+L3 CAT/CDP and L2 CAT are all members of Intel PSR features, they share the base
+PSR infrastructure in Xen.
+
+## Hardware perspective
+
+  CAT/CDP defines a range of MSRs to assign different cache access patterns
+  which are known as CBMs, each CBM is associated with a COS.
+
+  ```
+  E.g. L2 CAT:
+                          +----------------------------+----------------+
+     IA32_PQR_ASSOC       | MSR (per socket)           |    Address     |
+   +----+---+-------+     +----------------------------+----------------+
+   |    |COS|       |     | IA32_L2_QOS_MASK_0         |     0xD10      |
+   +----+---+-------+     +----------------------------+----------------+
+          +-------------> | ...                        |  ...           |
+                          +----------------------------+----------------+
+                          | IA32_L2_QOS_MASK_n         | 0xD10+n (n<64) |
+                          +----------------------------+----------------+
+  ```
+
+  L3 CAT/CDP uses a range of MSRs from 0xC90 ~ 0xC90+n (n<128).
+
+  L2 CAT uses a range of MSRs from 0xD10 ~ 0xD10+n (n<64), following the L3
+  CAT/CDP MSRs, setting different L2 cache accessing patterns from L3 cache is
+  supported.
+
+  Every MSR stores a CBM value. A capacity bitmask (CBM) provides a hint to the
+  hardware indicating the cache space a domain should be limited to as well as
+  providing an indication of overlap and isolation in the CAT-capable cache from
+  other domains contending for the cache.
+
+  Sample cache capacity bitmasks for a bitlength of 8 are shown below. Please
+  note that all (and only) contiguous '1' combinations are allowed (e.g. FFFFH,
+  0FF0H, 003CH, etc.).
+
+  ```
+       +----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+
+       | M7 | M6 | M5 | M4 | M3 | M2 | M1 | M0 |
+       +----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+
+  COS0 | A  | A  | A  | A  | A  | A  | A  | A  | Default Bitmask
+       +----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+
+  COS1 | A  | A  | A  | A  | A  | A  | A  | A  |
+       +----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+
+  COS2 | A  | A  | A  | A  | A  | A  | A  | A  |
+       +----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+
+
+       +----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+
+       | M7 | M6 | M5 | M4 | M3 | M2 | M1 | M0 |
+       +----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+
+  COS0 | A  | A  | A  | A  | A  | A  | A  | A  | Overlapped Bitmask
+       +----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+
+  COS1 |    |    |    |    | A  | A  | A  | A  |
+       +----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+
+  COS2 |    |    |    |    |    |    | A  | A  |
+       +----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+
+
+       +----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+
+       | M7 | M6 | M5 | M4 | M3 | M2 | M1 | M0 |
+       +----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+
+  COS0 | A  | A  | A  | A  |    |    |    |    | Isolated Bitmask
+       +----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+
+  COS1 |    |    |    |    | A  | A  |    |    |
+       +----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+
+  COS2 |    |    |    |    |    |    | A  | A  |
+       +----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+
+  ```
+
+  We can get the CBM length through CPUID. The default value of CBM is calcul-
+  ated by `(1ull << cbm_len) - 1`. That is a fully open bitmask, all ones bitm-
+  ask. The COS[0] always stores the default value without change.
+
+  There is a `IA32_PQR_ASSOC` register which stores the COS ID of the VCPU. HW
+  enforces cache allocation according to the corresponding CBM.
+
+## The relationship between L3 CAT/CDP and L2 CAT
+
+  HW may support all features. By default, CDP is disabled on the processor.
+  If the L3 CAT MSRs are used without enabling CDP, the processor operates in
+  a traditional CAT-only mode. When CDP is enabled:
+  * the CAT mask MSRs are re-mapped into interleaved pairs of mask MSRs for
+    data or code fetches.
+  * the range of COS for CAT is re-indexed, with the lower-half of the COS
+    range available for CDP.
+
+  L2 CAT is independent of L3 CAT/CDP, which means L2 CAT can be enabled while
+  L3 CAT/CDP is disabled, or L2 CAT and L3 CAT/CDP are both enabled.
+
+  As a requirement, the bits of CBM of CAT/CDP must be continuous.
+
+  N.B. L2 CAT and L3 CAT/CDP share the same COS field in the same associate
+  register `IA32_PQR_ASSOC`, which means one COS is associated with a pair of
+  L2 CAT CBM and L3 CAT/CDP CBM.
+
+  Besides, the max COS of L2 CAT may be different from L3 CAT/CDP (or other
+  PSR features in future). In some cases, a domain is permitted to have a COS
+  that is beyond one (or more) of PSR features but within the others. For
+  instance, let's assume the max COS of L2 CAT is 8 but the max COS of L3
+  CAT is 16, when a domain is assigned 9 as COS, the L3 CAT CBM associated to
+  COS 9 would be enforced, but for L2 CAT, the HW works as default value is
+  set since COS 9 is beyond the max COS (8) of L2 CAT.
+
+## Design Overview
+
+* Core COS/CBM association
+
+  When enforcing CAT/CDP, all cores of domains have the same default COS (COS0)
+  which is associated with the fully open CBM (all ones bitmask) to access all
+  cache. The default COS is used only in hypervisor and is transparent to tool
+  stack and user.
+
+  System administrator can change PSR allocation policy at runtime by tool stack.
+  Since L2 CAT shares COS with L3 CAT/CDP, a COS corresponds to a 2-tuple, like
+  [L2 CBM, L3 CBM] with only-CAT enabled, when CDP is enabled, one COS correspo-
+  nds to a 3-tuple, like [L2 CBM, L3 Code_CBM, L3 Data_CBM]. If neither L3 CAT
+  nor L3 CDP is enabled, things would be easier, one COS corresponds to one L2
+  CBM.
+
+* VCPU schedule
+
+  When context switch happens, the COS of VCPU is written to per-thread MSR
+  `IA32_PQR_ASSOC`, and then hardware enforces cache allocation according to
+  the corresponding CBM.
+
+* Multi-sockets
+
+  Different sockets may have different CAT/CDP capability (e.g. max COS) alth-
+  ough it is consistent on the same socket. So the capability of per-socket CAT/
+  CDP is specified.
+
+  'psr-cat-set' can set CBM for one domain per socket. On each socket, we main-
+  tain a COS array for all domains. One domain uses one COS at one time. One COS
+  stores the CBM of the domain to work. So, when a VCPU of the domain is migrat-
+  ed from socket 1 to socket 2, it follows configuration on socket 2.
+
+  E.g. user sets domain 1 CBM on socket 1 to 0x7f which uses COS 9 but sets do-
+  main 1 CBM on socket 2 to 0x3f which uses COS 7. When VCPU of this domain
+  is migrated from socket 1 to 2, the COS ID used is 7, that means 0x3f is the
+  CBM to work for this domain 1 now.
+
+## Implementation Description
+
+* Hypervisor interfaces:
+
+  1. Boot line parameter "psr=cat" enables L2 CAT and L3 CAT if hardware suppo-
+     rted. "psr=cdp" enables CDP if hardware supported.
+
+  2. SYSCTL:
+          - XEN_SYSCTL_PSR_CAT_get_l3_info: Get L3 CAT/CDP information.
+          - XEN_SYSCTL_PSR_CAT_get_l2_info: Get L2 CAT information.
+
+  3. DOMCTL:
+          - XEN_DOMCTL_PSR_CAT_OP_GET_L3_CBM: Get L3 CBM for a domain.
+          - XEN_DOMCTL_PSR_CAT_OP_SET_L3_CBM: Set L3 CBM for a domain.
+          - XEN_DOMCTL_PSR_CAT_OP_GET_L3_CODE: Get CDP Code CBM for a domain.
+          - XEN_DOMCTL_PSR_CAT_OP_SET_L3_CODE: Set CDP Code CBM for a domain.
+          - XEN_DOMCTL_PSR_CAT_OP_GET_L3_DATA: Get CDP Data CBM for a domain.
+          - XEN_DOMCTL_PSR_CAT_OP_SET_L3_DATA: Set CDP Data CBM for a domain.
+          - XEN_DOMCTL_PSR_CAT_OP_GET_L2_CBM: Get L2 CBM for a domain.
+          - XEN_DOMCTL_PSR_CAT_OP_SET_L2_CBM: Set L2 CBM for a domain.
+
+* xl interfaces:
+
+  1. psr-cat-show -lX domain-id
+          Show LX cbm for a domain.
+          => XEN_SYSCTL_PSR_CAT_get_l3_info    /
+             XEN_SYSCTL_PSR_CAT_get_l2_info    /
+             XEN_DOMCTL_PSR_CAT_OP_GET_L3_CBM  /
+             XEN_DOMCTL_PSR_CAT_OP_GET_L3_CODE /
+             XEN_DOMCTL_PSR_CAT_OP_GET_L3_DATA /
+             XEN_DOMCTL_PSR_CAT_OP_GET_L2_CBM
+
+  2. psr-cat-set -lX domain-id cbm
+          Set LX cbm for a domain.
+          => XEN_DOMCTL_PSR_CAT_OP_SET_L3_CBM  /
+             XEN_DOMCTL_PSR_CAT_OP_SET_L3_CODE /
+             XEN_DOMCTL_PSR_CAT_OP_SET_L3_DATA /
+             XEN_DOMCTL_PSR_CAT_OP_SET_L2_CBM
+
+  3. psr-hwinfo
+          Show PSR HW information, including L3 CAT/CDP/L2 CAT
+          => XEN_SYSCTL_PSR_CAT_get_l3_info /
+             XEN_SYSCTL_PSR_CAT_get_l2_info
+
+* Key data structure:
+
+   1. Feature properties
+
+      ```
+      static const struct feat_props {
+          unsigned int cos_num;
+          enum cbm_type type[PSR_MAX_COS_NUM];
+          enum cbm_type alt_type;
+          bool (*get_feat_info)(const struct feat_node *feat,
+                                uint32_t data[], unsigned int array_len);
+          void (*write_msr)(unsigned int cos, uint32_t val, enum cbm_type type);
+      } *feat_props[PSR_SOCKET_FEAT_NUM];
+      ```
+
+      Every feature has its own properties, e.g. some data and actions. A
+      feature property pointer array is declared to save every feature's
+      properties.
+
+      - Member `cos_num`
+
+        `cos_num` is the number of COS registers the feature uses, e.g. L3/L2
+        CAT uses 1 register but CDP uses 2 registers.
+
+      - Member `type`
+
+        `type` is an array to save all 'enum cbm_type' values of the feature.
+        It is used with cos_num together to get/write a feature's COS registers
+        values one by one.
+
+      - Member `alt_type`
+
+        `alt_type` is 'alternative type'. When this 'alt_type' is input, the
+        feature does some special operations.
+
+      - Member `get_feat_info`
+
+        `get_feat_info` is used to return feature HW info through sysctl.
+
+      - Member `write_msr`
+
+        `write_msr` is used to write out feature MSR register.
+
+   2. Feature node
+
+      ```
+      struct feat_node {
+          unsigned int cos_max;
+          unsigned int cbm_len;
+          uint32_t cos_reg_val[MAX_COS_REG_CNT];
+      };
+      ```
+
+      When a PSR enforcement feature is enabled, it will be added into a
+      feature array.
+
+      - Member `cos_max`
+
+        `cos_max` is one of the hardware info of CAT. It means the max number
+        of COS registers. As L3 CAT/CDP/L2 CAT all have it, it is declared in
+        `feat_node`.
+
+      - Member `cbm_len`
+
+        `cbm_len` is one of the hardware info of CAT. It means the max number
+        of bits to set.
+
+      - Member `cos_reg_val`
+
+        `cos_reg_val` is an array to maintain the value set in all COS registers
+        of the feature. The array is indexed by COS ID.
+
+   3. Per-socket PSR features information structure
+
+      ```
+      struct psr_socket_info {
+          bool feat_init;
+          struct feat_node *features[PSR_SOCKET_FEAT_NUM];
+          spinlock_t ref_lock;
+          unsigned int cos_ref[MAX_COS_REG_CNT];
+          DECLARE_BITMAP(dom_ids, DOMID_IDLE + 1);
+      };
+      ```
+
+      We collect all PSR allocation features information of a socket in this
+      `struct psr_socket_info`.
+
+      - Member `feat_init`
+
+        `feat_init` is a flag, to indicate whether the CPU init on a socket
+        has been done.
+
+      - Member `features`
+
+        `features` is a pointer array to save all enabled features poniters
+        according to feature position defined in `enum psr_feat_type`.
+
+      - Member `ref_lock`
+
+        `ref_lock` is a spin lock to protect `cos_ref`.
+
+      - Member `cos_ref`
+
+        `cos_ref` is an array which maintains the reference of one COS. It maps
+        to cos_reg_val[MAX_COS_REG_NUM] in `struct feat_node`. If one COS is
+        used by one domain, the corresponding reference will increase by one. If
+        a domain releases the COS, the reference will decrease by one. The array
+        is indexed by COS ID.
+
+      - Member `dom_ids`
+
+        `dom_ids` is a bitmap, every bit corresponds to a domain. Index is
+        domain_id. It is used to help restore the cos_id of the domain to 0 when
+        a socket is offline and then online again.
+
+# Limitations
+
+CAT/CDP can only work on HW which enables it(check by CPUID). So far, there is
+no HW which enables both L2 CAT and L3 CAT/CDP. But SW implementation has cons-
+idered such scenario to enable both L2 CAT and L3 CAT/CDP.
+
+# Testing
+
+We can execute above xl commands to verify L2 CAT and L3 CAT/CDP on different
+HWs support them.
+
+For example:
+    root@:~$ xl psr-hwinfo --cat
+    Cache Allocation Technology (CAT): L2
+    Socket ID       : 0
+    Maximum COS     : 3
+    CBM length      : 8
+    Default CBM     : 0xff
+
+    root@:~$ xl psr-cat-cbm-set -l2 1 0x7f
+
+    root@:~$ xl psr-cat-show -l2 1
+    Socket ID       : 0
+    Default CBM     : 0xff
+       ID                     NAME             CBM
+        1                 ubuntu14            0x7f
+
+# Areas for improvement
+
+A hexadecimal number is used to set/show CBM for a domain now. Although this
+is convenient to cover overlap/isolated bitmask requirement, it is not user-
+friendly.
+
+To improve this, the libxl interfaces can be wrapped in libvirt to provide more
+usr-friendly interfaces to user, e.g. a percentage number of the cache to set
+and show.
+
+# Known issues
+
+N/A
+
+# References
+
+"INTEL® RESOURCE DIRECTOR TECHNOLOGY (INTEL® RDT) ALLOCATION FEATURES" [Intel® 64 and IA-32 Architectures Software Developer Manuals, vol3](http://www.intel.com/content/www/us/en/processors/architectures-software-developer-manuals.html)
+
+# History
+
+------------------------------------------------------------------------
+Date       Revision Version  Notes
+---------- -------- -------- -------------------------------------------
+2016-08-12 1.0      Xen 4.9  Design document written
+2017-02-13 1.7      Xen 4.9  Changes:
+                             1. Modify the design document to cover L3
+                                CAT/CDP and L2 CAT;
+                             2. Fix typos;
+                             3. Amend description of `feat_mask` to make
+                                it clearer;
+                             4. Other minor changes.
+2017-02-15 1.8      Xen 4.9  Changes:
+                             1. Add content in 'Areas for improvement';
+                             2. Adjust revision number.
+2017-03-16 1.9      Xen 4.9  Changes:
+                             1. Add 'CMT' in 'Terminology';
+                             2. Change 'feature list' to 'feature array'.
+                             3. Modify data structure descriptions.
+                             4. Adjust revision number.
+2017-05-03 1.11     Xen 4.9  Changes:
+                             1. Modify data structure descriptions.
+                             2. Adjust revision number.
+2017-07-13 1.14     Xen 4.10 Changes:
+                             1. Fix a typo.
+2017-08-01 1.15     Xen 4.10 Changes:
+                             1. Add 'alt_type' in 'feat_props' structure.
+---------- -------- -------- -------------------------------------------
--
generated by git-patchbot for /home/xen/git/xen.git#master


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